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The Siouan Mythology
The Mdewakantonwan
Tribal Nomenclature
The Sisitonwan Or Sisseton
The Siha-sapa Or Blackfeet
The Oohe-nonpa Or Two Kettles
Phonetic And Graphic Arts
Designation And Mode Of Camping

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The Waqpe-kute
3 _{~latin Small Letter Turned T~}{~latin Small Letter Open O~}iwe´re_ (_people Of This Place_)
9 _catawba Or Ni-ya (people)_
The Osage
The Ni-u'-t'a-tci Or Missouri
2 _cegiha_ (_people Dwelling Here_)(9)
The Eastern And Southern Tribes
General Features Of Organization

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Some Features Of Indian Sociology
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The Eastern And Southern Tribes

The history of the Monakan, Oatawba, Sara, Pedee, and Santee, and
incidentally that of the Biloxi, has been carefully reviewed in a recent
publication by Mooney(54) , and does not require repetition.

On reviewing the records of explorers and pioneers and the few traditions
which have been preserved, the course of Siouan migration and development
becomes clear. In general the movements were westward and northwestward.
The Dakota tribes have not been traced far, though several of them, like
the Yanktonnai, migrated hundreds of miles from the period of first
observation to the end of the eighteenth century; then came the Mandan,
according to their tradition, and as they ascended the Missouri left
traces of their occupancy scattered over 1,000 miles of migration; next
the cegiha descended the Ohio and passed from the cis-Mississippi forests
over the trans-Mississippi plains--the stronger branch following the
Mandan, while the lesser at first descended the great river and then
worked up the Arkansas into the buffalo country until checked and diverted
by antagonistic tribes. So also the {~LATIN SMALL LETTER TURNED T~}{~LATIN SMALL LETTER OPEN O~}iwe're, first recorded near the
Mississippi, pushed 300 miles westward; while the Winnebago gradually
emigrated from the region of the Great Lakes into the trans-Mississippi
country even before their movements were affected by contact with white
men. In like manner the Hidatsa are known to have flowed northwestward
many scores of miles; and the Asiniboin swept more rapidly across the
plains from the place of their rebellion against the Yanktonnai, on the
Mississippi, before they found final resting place on the Saskatchewan
plains 500 or 800 miles away. All of the movements were consistent and,
despite intertribal friction and strife, measurably harmonious. The lines
of movement, so far as they can be restored, are in full accord with the
lines of linguistic evolution traced by Hale and Dorsey and Gatschet, and
indicate that some five hundred or possibly one thousand years ago the
tribesmen pushed over the Appalachians to the Ohio and followed that
stream and its tributaries to the Mississippi (though there are faint
indications that some of the early emigrants ascended the northern
tributaries to the region of the Great Lakes); and that the human flood
gained volume as it advanced and expanded to cover the entire region of
the plains. The records concerning the movement of this great human stream
find support in the manifest reason for the movement; the reason was the
food quest by which all primitive men are led, and its end was the
abundant fauna of the prairieland, with the buffalo at its head.

While the early population of the Siouan stock, when first the huntsmen
crossed the Appalachians, may not be known, the lines of migration
indicate that the people increased and multiplied amain during their long
journey, and that their numbers culminated, despite external conflict and
internal strife, about the beginning of written history, when the Siouan
population may have been 100,000 or more. Then came war against the whites
and the still more deadly smallpox, whereby the vigorous stock was checked
and crippled and the population gradually reduced; but since the first
shock, which occurred at different dates in different parts of the great
region, the Siouan people have fairly held their own, and some branches
are perhaps gaining in strength.

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